In this part there are several passages followed by questions or unfinished statements, each with four suggested answers marked A, B, C and D. Choose the one that you think is the correct answer.
A Wise Man
He was a funny looking man with a cheerful face, good natured and a great talker. He was described by his student, the great philosopher Plato, as “the best and most just and wisest man. ”Yet, this same man was condemned to death for his beliefs.
The man was the Greek philosopher, Socrates, and he was condemned for not believing in the recognized gods and for corrupting young people. The second charge stemmed from his association with numerous young men who came to Athens from all over the civilized world to study under him.
Socrates’ method of teaching was to ask questions and, by pretending not to know the answers, to press his students into thinking for themselves. His teachings had unsurpassed influence on all the great Greek and Roman schools of philosophy. Yet, for all his fame and influence, Socrates himself never wrote a word.
Socrates encouraged new ideas and free thinking in the young, and this was frightening to the conservative people. They wanted him silenced. Yet, many were probably surprised that he accepted death so readily.
Socrates had the right to ask for a lesser penalty, and he probably could have won over enough of the people who had previously condemned him. But Socrates, as a firm believer in law, reasoned that it was proper to submit to the death sentence. So, he calmly accepted his fate and drank a cup of poison hemlock in the presence of his grief-stricken friends and students.
1. In the first paragraph, the word yet is used to introduce ___.
A. contrast B. a sequence C. emphasis D. an example
2. Socrates was condemned to death because he ___.
A. believed in law
B. was a philosopher
C. published outspoken philosophical articles
D. advocated original opinions
3. The word unsurpassed in the third paragraph is closest in meaning to ___.
A. untold B. unequalled C. unnoticed D. unexpected
4. By mentioning that Socrates himself never wrote anything, the writer implies that ___.
A. it was surprising that Socrates was so famous
B. Socrates was not so learned as he is reputed to have been
C. Socrates used the work of his students in teaching
D. the authorities refused to publish Socrates’ works
5. Socrates accepted the death penalty to show ___.
A. his belief in his students
B. his contempt for conservatives
C. his recognition of the legal system
D. that he was not afraid of death
In England, along a stretch of the north-east coast which gently curves from Northumberland to the estuary of the river Tees, there was a spot, typical of many on that coast, where sea-coal collected richly and effortlessly. This coal was a coarse powder, clean and brilliant. It seemed to bear little resemblance to the large, filthy lumps put onto the fire. Although it was coal, it was perfectly clean and it was silently deposited at high tide in a glittering carpet a kilometre long for the local community to gather up.
The gear needed for sea-coaling expeditions was a curious and traditionally proven assortment which never varied from community to community along the entire north-east coastline. Sacks were essential to put the coal in, and string to tie the neck of each sack when it was full. A wooden rake was used to serape the coal from the beach. The only alternative to the rake was a flat piece of board held in the hand. A flat, broad shovel to lift the raked coal into the bags, completed the portable hardware.
But the most crucial item of equipment was a bicycle, a special kind of rusty, stripped down model which was the symbol of the sea-coaling craft. A lady’s bike was no good because it lacked a crossbar, and that was an essential element in transporting sea-coal. One full sack could be slung through the triangular frame of a man’s bike, another over the crossbar and, sometimes, even a third on top of that. It not only enabled one to move the sea coal from place to place, but the pressure of the metal bar against the full, wet sacks forced excess water out of the coal while it was being wheeled home. On a good day, the path to the beach was generally a double snailtrack of water that had been forced from each end of a trail of coal sacks.
6. The difference between the two types of coal was that ___.
A. sea coal burnt better B. sea coal was cheaper
C. sea coal was more finely-grained D. sea coal came in big pieces
7. Certain equipment was used because ___.
A. the people were very traditional
B. it could be made by the communities themselves
C. it had proved to be practical
D. the communities had curious habits
8. Which piece of equipment was not vital to sea-coal collecting?
A. A rake B. A sack C. A lady’s bike D. A piece of string
9. To carry three sacks of coal on a bicycle it was necessary to ___.
A. put one of them on the saddle
B. balance them all on the crossbar
C. balance two on the crossbar
D. put two through the framework
10. By using the bicycle ___.
A. the collectors could ride home
B. the coal could be moved easily over the sand
C. the collectors could sell more coal
D. excess liquid could be removed
Did you know that all human beings have a “comfort zone” regulating the distance they stand from someone when they talk? This distance varies in interesting ways among people of different cultures.
Greeks, others of the Eastern Mediterranean, and many of those from South America normally stand quite close together when they talk, often moving their faces even closer as they warm up in a conversation. North Americans find this awkward and often back away a few inches. Studies have found that they tend to feel most comfortable at about 21 inches apart. In much of Asia and Africa, there is even more space between two speakers in conversation. This greater space subtly lends an air of dignity and respect. This matter of space is nearly always unconscious, but it is interesting to observe.
This difference applies also to the closeness with which people sit together, the extent to which they lean over one another in conversation, how they move as they argue or make an emphatic point. In the United States, for example, people try to keep their bodies apart even in a crowded elevator; in Paris they take it as it comes!
Although North Americans have a relatively wide “comfort zone” for talking, they communicate a great deal with their hands—not only with gesture but also with touch. They put a sympathetic hand on a person’s shoulder to demonstrate warmth of feeling or an arm around him in sympathy; they nudge a man in the ribs to emphasize a funny story; they pat an arm in reassurance or stroke a child’s head in affection; they readily take someone’s arm to help him across a street or direct him along an unfamiliar route. To many people—especially those from Asia or the Moslem countries—such bodily contact is unwelcome, especially if inadvertently done with the left hand. (The left hand carries no special significance in the U. S.. Many Americans are simply left-handed and use that hand more. )
11. In terms of bodily distance, North Americans ___.
A. are similar to South Americans
B. stand farthest apart
C. feel ill at ease when too close
D. move nearer during conversations
12. For Asians, the comfort zone ___.
A. is deliberately determined B. measures 21 inches
C. varies according to status D. implies esteem
13. It can be inferred from the passage that in a crowded elevator, a Frenchman ___.
A. would behave in the same way as an American would
B. would make no particular effort to distance himself
C. would be afraid of bodily contact
D. would do his best to leave
14. When Americans tell a joke, they often ___.
A. pat people on the head B. give people a hug
C. dig people in the ribs D. touch people on the arm
15. The passage mainly concerns ___.
A. distance and bodily contact
B. body language
C. cultural differences between the East and the West
D. hand signals
Do Insects Think?
In a recent book entitled The Psychic Life of Insects, Professor Bouvier says that we must be careful not to credit the little winged fellows with intelligence when they behave in what seems like an intelligent manner. They may be only reacting. I would like to confront the Professor with an instance of reasoning power on the part of an insect which cannot be explained away in any other manner.
During the summer of 1899, while I was at work on my doctoral thesis, we kept a female wasp at our cottage. It was more like a child of our own than a wasp, except that it looked more like a wasp than a child of our own. That was one of the ways we told the difference.
It was still a young wasp when we got it (thirteen or fourteen years old) and for some time we could not get it to eat or drink, it was so shy. Since it was a female we decided to call it Miriam, but soon the children’s nickname for it—“Pudge”—became a fixture, and“Pudge” it was from that time on.
One evening I had been working late in my laboratory fooling around with some gin and other chemicals, and in leaving the room I tripped over. a nine of diamonds which someone had left lying on the floor and knocked over my card index which contained the names and addresses of all the larvae worth knowing in North America. The cards went everywhere.
I was too tired to stop to pick them up that night, and went sobbing to bed, just as mad as I could be. As I went, however, I noticed the wasp was flying about in circles over the scattered cards. “Maybe Pudge will pick them up”, I said half laughingly to myself, never thinking for one moment that such would be the case.
When I came down the next morning Pudge was still asleep in her box, evidently tired out. And well she might have been. For there on the floor lay the cards scattered all about just as I had left them the night before. The faithful little insect had buzzed about all night trying to come to some decision about picking them up and arranging them in the boxes for me, and then had figured out for herself that, as she knew practically nothing of larvae of any sort except wasp larvae, she would probably make more of a mess of rearranging them than if she had left them on the floor for me to fix. It was just too much for her to tackle, and, discouraged, she went over and lay down in her box, where she cried herself to sleep.
If this is not an answer to Professor Bouvier’s statement, I do not know what is.
16. Professor Bouvier believes that insect’s ___.
A. do not have intelligence
B. behave in an intelligent way
C. are capable of reasoning
D. are more intelligent than we thought
17. On the evening the author fell over, someone ___.
A. had moved his card index
B. had been playing card games
C. had knocked over his boxes containing cards
D. had looked at his collection of diamonds
18. When he came to the laboratory the next morning, the author ___.
A. saw that his cards had already been rearranged
B. realized that the wasp had been trying to help
C. found evidence of the wasp’s intelligence
D. found his index cards still scattered about the room
19. The author’s account of his wasp’s intelligence ___.
A. is imaginary B. is convincing
C. firmly proves his point of view D. is valuable for insect study
20. The purpose of this article is to ___.
A. oppose Professor Bouvier’s point of view
B. support Professor Bouvier with his own experience
C. further discuss whether insects are intelligent
D. illustrate the working theory behind the author’s thesis
【详细解答】短文第四段开始说“Socrates encouraged new ideas and free thinking in the young，and this was frightening to the conservative people．They wanted him silenced．”由此可知，他被判死刑是因为他“勇于开创新思想”，故选项D为正确答案。
【详细解答】第三段第二句说“His teachings had unsurpassed influence on all the great Greek and Roman schools of philosophy．”这里是说“在希腊和罗马的所有哲学学院中，苏格拉底的教学都具有无与伦比的影响力。”surpass意为“超过，超越”，unsurpassed则意为“无与伦比的，未被超过的”， 故选项B为正确答案。
【详细解答】文中第三段最后一句说“Yet，for all his fame and influence，Socrates himself never wrote a word．”从此可以看出，苏格拉底的教学方式是提出问题，让学生自己去思考，并不是把自己的观点和思想灌输给学生，由此可知，他在教学中经常使用学生的作品，这就是他自己从来没有写过什么东西的原因。
【详细解答】最后一段的第二句说“But Socrates，as a firm believer in law，reasoned that it was proper to submit to the death sentence．”由此句知，苏格拉底接受死刑判决是因为他坚信法律，故选项C为正确答案。
【详细解答】短文第一段说“This coal was a coarse powder, clean and brilliant．It seemed to bear little resemblance to the large，filthy lumps put on the fire．”即海煤“coarse powder”，而普通的家用煤则“large，filthy lumps”，所以两者相比，海煤更细些，故选项C为正确答案。
【详细解答】第二段第一句说“The gear needed for sea-coaling expeditions was a curious and traditionally proven assortment which never varied from community to community…”，这里的 traditionally proven指“惯用的并被证明有效的”。故选项C“因为这套工具被证明是实用的”为正确答案。
【详细解答】短文第三段又讲到自行车是最重要的一种工具，但需要的是男士自行车（a man’s bike），因为“A lady’s bike was no good because it lacked a crossbar，and that was an essential element in transporting sea-coal．”女士自行车是没有用的，因为它缺少横梁，横梁是在运煤中必不可少的。故选项C为正确答案。
【详细解答】第三段第三句说“One full sack could be slung through the triangular frame of a man’s bike，another over the crossbar and，sometimes even a third on top of that．”由此可知，可以放一袋在自行车三角形的框架里面，另外两袋放在横梁上。
【详细解答】短文第三段倒数第二句说“it not only enabled one to move the sea coal from place to place，but the pressure of the metal bar against the full，wet sacks forced excess water out of the coal….” 由此可知，通过使用自行车，可以把煤炭里的水挤出来。故选项D“除掉过多液体”为正确答案。
【详细解答】短文第二段第二句说“North Americans find this awkward and often back away a few inches．”这里的this指前一句提到的“stand quite close”，由此可知，北美人在交谈时是不喜欢身体靠得太近的，那样他们会感到尴尬，故选项C为正确答案。
【详细解答】短文第二段第四、五句说“In much of Asia and Africa，there is even more space between two speakers in conversation．This greater space subtly lends an air of dignity and respect．” 即亚洲和非洲的人在谈话时需要更多的身体空间，且间隔空间越大，越显示出尊重的气氛。故选项D“暗示尊重”为正确答案。
【详细解答】短文第三段最后一句说“In the United States，for example，people try to keep their bodies apart even in a crowded elevator；in Paris they take it as it comes!”即在拥挤的电梯里，美国人会尽量使自己的身体与其他人隔开；而在巴黎，人们则较随便。故选项B“不做特别努力去保持距离”为正确答案。项符合文意。
【详细解答】第四段第二句说“They nudge a man in the ribs to emphasize a funny story．”由此可知，美国人在讲笑话时会碰一下讲话对象的肋骨。
【详细解答】短文第一句告诉我们“…Professor Bouvier says that we must be careful not to credit the little winged fellow with intelligence when they behave in what seems like an intelligent manner.”即“Bouvier教授说我们必须要小心，不能因为那些带翼的家伙有时看似有智力的行为就相信它们有智力。”故Bouvier教授的观点是“昆虫没有智力”。
【详细解答】短文第四段说“…in leaving the room I tripped over a nine of diamonds which someone had left lying on the floor and knocked over my card index…”，即“在离开房间的时候被地上的一张方片9的扑克牌绊倒了，打翻了索引卡片。”由此可知，当晚有人在那里玩扑克牌，故选项B为正确答案。
【详细解答】短文第六段第二句说“For there on the floor lay the cards scattered all about just as I had left them the night before．”即第二天早上作者来到实验室的时候，发现卡片仍然像前一天晚上一样散落在地板上。故选项D为正确答案。
【详细解答】短文第一段最后一句说“I would like to confront the Professor with an instance of reasoning power on the part of an insect which cannot be explained away in any other manner．” 由此可知，作者写这篇文章的目的就是用实例来反驳Bouvier教授的观点。
甘肃广播电视大学 付晓燕，2008年10月 Gansu Radio & Television University,2008-10 fuxygsrtvu.cn